European Secession Votes and Market Implications: Scotland

Stuart QuintStuart P. Quint, CFA, Senior Investment Manager and International Strategist

This first blog in a two-part series will examine the Scottish secession vote coming in September and the potential implications for financial markets. The second blog will delve into the Catalan vote in November.

“There is the real possibility of one or several national divorces being initiated in Western Europe in 2014,” opines Nicholas Siegel, program officer at the Transatlantic Academy, a U.S.-European think-tank based in Washington.[1]

Secession votes will be held in the UK in September over the future of Scotland and in Spain in November over the future of Catalunya. It appears unlikely that either will result in a real separation of the regions from these nations. However, financial markets should still monitor the progress of these votes. Markets appear to discount a rejection of secession. If voters in one of these regions were to vote for secession, that could trigger near-term volatility. Regardless, these votes highlight fragility in the fabric of the European Union that warrants monitoring.

Voters in Scotland will elect whether to remain a part of the United Kingdom or to secede and claim independence. A “Yes” vote would lead to binding negotiations between the Scottish and UK Governments for eventual secession. Recent polls suggest pro-independence voters will not succeed as a plurality of voters leans against independence.[2]

Quint_SecessionScotland_8.19.14In the event of a vote for independence, complications both for the UK and Scotland could ensue. The size of the economy and population of Scotland is less than 10% of the UK; yet, these statistics conceal a few hurdles. Much of the energy produced within the UK falls within Scottish jurisdiction. Many UK financial services companies are based in Scotland (though the majority of their revenues derive from outside Scotland). Moreover, the Bank of England has stated that Scotland would have to use its own currency instead of the British Pound Sterling.

The costs of independence could bring with them financial turmoil at least for an independent Scotland. However, the UK itself might not go unscathed as the British Pound Sterling is a reserve currency that could lose support. Major corporations, such as Standard Life, could relocate from Scotland back to the UK

Even a “No” vote, though, does not necessarily put an end to the matter. A narrow vote could give way to a second future vote and have repercussions for future votes on the UK remaining in the EU and general elections in 2015. A “No” vote that fails to win overwhelmingly could potentially accelerate the timing of the referendum for whether the UK remains in the EU.

In terms of financial markets, the closest recent comparable is Canada, which experienced two failed referenda regarding the secession of Quebec in 1980 and 1995. In both instances, markets did not underperform global markets leading into and post the referenda. Although markets shrugged off the referenda, over time many large Canadian corporations relocated their headquarters out of Quebec.

[1] “Is Secession the Answer? The Case of Catalonia, Flanders, and Scotland”, December 2, 2013 retrieved on http://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/article/secession-answer-case-catalonia-flanders-scotland/ .

[2] Lukyano Mnyanda, “Scots Anti-Independence Camp Gains in Poll amid Pound Doubts”, August 13, 2014, Bloomberg News.

The views expressed are those of Brinker Capital and are not intended as investment advice or recommendation. For informational purposes only. Holdings are subject to change.

Eurozone Crisis Report Card

Ryan DresselRyan Dressel, Investment Analyst, Brinker Capital

In January 2013 Amy Magnotta wrote in detail about how the actions of the European Central Bank (ECB) finally gave the markets confidence that policy makers could get their sovereign debt problems under control.[1] The purpose of this blog is to measure the progress of the ECB’s actions, as well as other critical steps taken to resolve the Eurozone crisis.

Maintaining the Euro: A+
The markets put a lot of faith in the comments made by the head of the ECB Mario Draghi in July, 2012. Draghi stated that he would “Pledge to do whatever it takes to preserve the euro.” These words have proven to be monumental in preserving the euro as a currency. Following his announcement, the ECB still had to put together a plan that would be approved by the ECB’s governing council (comprised of banking representatives from each of the 18 EU countries)[2]. The politics of the approval essentially boiled down to whether or not each council member supported the euro as a currency. Draghi’s plan ultimately passed when Germany’s Chancellor, Angela Merkel, endorsed it in September 2012.[3] The stabilization of the euro boosted lending and borrowing for European banks, and allowed governments to introduce necessary economic reforms outlined in the plan.

Since the plan was approved, the euro’s value versus the U.S. Dollar has continued to rise; reaching levels last seen in 2011. There is still some debate as to whether or not the currency will last over the long term, but for now its stability has helped avoid the worst possible outcome (financial collapse). There are several key elections coming up over the next month, which could renew the threat of breaking up the currency if anti-EU officials are elected.

Government Deficit Levels: B
The average Eurozone government deficit came in at 3.0% in 2013, which was down from 3.7% in 2012. Budgets will need to remain tight for years to come.

Corporate Earnings: B
The MSCI Europe All Cap Index has returned 27.46% in 2013 and 5.01% so far in 2014 (as of last week). The Euro area also recorded first quarter 2014 GDP growth at +0.2% (-1.2% in Q1 2013).[4] This indicates that companies in Europe have established some positive earnings growth since the peak of the crisis. On a global scale, Europe looks like an attractive market for growth.

Dressel_EuroZone_ReportCard_5.30.14

Unemployment: C
Unemployment in the Eurozone has stabilized, but has not improved significantly enough to overcome its structural problems. The best improvements have come out of Spain, Ireland and Portugal due to a variety of reasons. In Ireland, emigration has helped reduce jobless claims while a majority of economic sectors increased employment growth. In Spain, the increased competitiveness in the manufacturing sector has been a large contributor. Portugal has seen a broad reduction in unemployment stemming from the strict labor reforms mandated by the ECB in exchange for bailout packages. These reforms are increasing worker hours, cutting overtime payments, reducing holidays, and giving companies the ability to replace poorly performing employees.[5]

Dressel_EuroZone_ReportCard_5.30.14_1[6]

There are also some important fundamental factors detracting from the overall labor market recovery. The large divide between temporary workers and permanent workers in many Eurozone countries has made labor markets especially difficult to reform. This is likely due to a mismatch of skills between employers and workers. High employment taxes and conservative decision-making by local governments and corporations have also created challenges for the recovery.

Additional Reading: Euro Area Labor Markets

Debt Levels: D
Total accumulated public debt in the Eurozone has actually gotten worse since the ECB’s plan was introduced. In 2013 it was 92.6% of gross domestic product, up from 90.7% in 2012. The stated European Union limit is 60%, which reflects the extremely high amount of government borrowing required to stabilize their economies.

Overall Recovery Progress: B-
On a positive note, governments are finally able to participate in bond markets without the fear of bankruptcy looming. Banks are lending again. Unemployment appears to have peaked and political officials recognize the importance of improving economic progress.

Unlike the 2008 U.S. recovery however, progress is noticeably slower. The social unrest, slow decision making, low confidence levels, and now geopolitical risks in Ukraine have hampered the recovery. When you consider the financial state of Europe less than two years ago, you have to give the ECB, and Europe in general, some credit. Things are slowly heading in the right direction.

The views expressed are those of Brinker Capital and are for informational purposes only. Holdings are subject to change.

[1] January 4, 2013. “Is Europe on the Mend?” http://blog.brinkercapital.com/2013/01/04/is-europe-on-the-mend/
[2]
European Central Bank. http://www.ecb.europa.eu/ecb/orga/decisions/govc/html/index.en.html
[3] September 6, 2012. “Technical features of Outright Monetary Transactions. European Central Bank.” http://www.ecb.europa.eu/press/pr/date/2012/html/pr120906_1.en.html
[4] Eurostat
[5] August 6, 2012. “Portugal Enforces Labour Reforms but More Demanded.” http://www.wsws.org/en/articles/2012/08/port-a06.html
[6] Eurostat (provided by Google Public Data)

2013 Review and Outlook

Amy MagnottaAmy Magnotta, CFA, Senior Investment Manager, Brinker Capital

2013 was a stellar year for U.S. equities, the best since 1997. Despite major concerns relating to the Federal Reserve (tapering of asset purchases, new Chairperson) and Washington (sequestration, government shutdown, debt ceiling), as well as issues like Cyprus and Syria, the U.S. equity markets steadily rallied throughout the year, failing to experience a pullback of more than 6%.

Source: Strategas Research Partners, LLC

In the U.S. markets, strong gains were experienced across all market capitalizations and styles, with each gaining at least 32% for the year. Small caps outperformed large caps and growth led value. Yield-oriented equities, like telecoms and utilities, generally lagged as they were impacted by the taper trade. The strongest performing sectors—consumer discretionary, healthcare and industrials—all gained more than 40%. Correlations across stocks continued to decline, which is a positive development for active managers.

YenDeveloped international markets produced solid gains for the year, but lagged the U.S. markets. Japan was the top performing country, gaining 52% in local terms; however, the gains translated to 27% in U.S. dollar terms due to a weaker yen. Performance in European markets was generally strong, led by Ireland, Germany and Spain.  Australia and Canada meaningfully lagged, delivering only mid-single-digit gains.

Concerns over the impact of Fed tapering and slowing economic growth weighed on emerging economies in 2013, and their equity markets significantly lagged that of developed economies. The group’s loss of -2.2% was exacerbated due to weaker currencies, especially in Brazil, Indonesia, Turkey and India. Emerging market small cap companies were able to eke out a gain of just over 1%, while less efficient frontier markets gained 4.5%.

Fixed income posted its first loss since 1999, with the Barclays Aggregate Index experiencing a decline of -2%. The yield on the 10-year U.S. Treasury began rising in May, and moved significantly higher after then Federal Reserve Chairman Bernanke signaled in his testimony to Congress that tapering of asset purchases could happen sooner than anticipated. The 10-year yield hit 3% but then declined again after the Fed decided not to begin tapering in September. It climbed steadily higher in November and December, ending the year at 3.04%—126 basis points above where it began the year.

TIPS were the worst performing fixed income sector for the year, declining more than -8%, as inflation remained low and TIPS have a longer-than-average duration. On the other hand, high-yield credit had a solid year, gaining more than 7%. Across the credit spectrum, lower quality outperformed.

Magnotta_Client_Newsletter_1.7.13_5We believe that the bias is for interest rates to move higher, but it will likely come in fits and starts. Rising longer-term interest rates in the context of stronger economic growth and low inflation is a satisfactory outcome. Despite rising rates, fixed income still plays a role in portfolios, as a hedge to equity-oriented assets if we see weaker economic growth or major macro risks. Our fixed income positioning in portfolios, which includes an emphasis on yield advantaged, shorter duration and low volatility absolute return strategies, is designed to successfully navigate a rising interest rate environment.

We continue to approach our macro view as a balance between headwinds and tailwinds. We believe the scale remains tipped in favor of tailwinds as we begin 2014, with a number of factors supporting the economy and markets.

  • Monetary policy remains accommodative: Even with tapering beginning in January, short-term interest rates should remain near zero until 2015. In addition, the European Central Bank stands ready to provide support, and the Bank of Japan has embraced an aggressive monetary easing program in an attempt to boost growth and inflation.
  • Global growth strengthening: U.S. economic growth has been slow and steady, but momentum has picked up (+4.1% annualized growth in 3Q). The manufacturing and service PMIs remain solidly in expansion territory. Outside of the U.S., growth has not been very robust but is still positive.
  • Labor market progress: The recovery in the labor market has been slow, but stable. Monthly payroll gains have averaged more than 200,000 and the unemployment rate has fallen to 7%.
  • Inflation tame: With the CPI increasing only +1.2% over the last 12 months, inflation in the U.S. is running below the Fed’s target.
  • Increase in household net worth: Household net worth rose to a new high in the third quarter, helped by both financial and real estate assets. Rising net worth is a positive for consumer confidence and future consumption.
  • U.S. companies remain in solid shape: U.S. companies have solid balance sheets that are flush with cash that could be reinvested, returned to shareholders, or used for acquisitions. Corporate profits remain at high levels and margins have been resilient.
  • Equity fund flows turn positive: Equity mutual funds have experienced inflows over the last three months while fixed income funds have experienced significant outflows, a reversal of the pattern of the last five years. Continued inflows would provide further support to the equity markets.
  • Some movement on fiscal policy: After serving as a major uncertainty over the last few years, there seems to be some movement in Washington. Fiscal drag will not have a major impact on growth next year. All parties in Washington were able to agree on a two year budget agreement, averting another government shutdown in January. However, the debt ceiling still needs to be addressed.

However, risks facing the economy and markets remain including:

  • Fed Tapering: The Fed will begin reducing the amount of their asset purchases in January, and if they taper an additional $10 billion at each meeting, QE should end in the fall. Risk assets have historically reacted negatively when monetary stimulus has been withdrawn; however, the economy appears to be on more solid footing.
  • Significantly higher interest rates: Rates moving significantly higher from current levels could stifle the economic recovery. Should mortgage rates move higher, it could jeopardize the recovery in the housing market.
  • Sentiment elevated: Investor sentiment is elevated, which typically serves as a contrarian signal. The market has not experienced a correction in some time.

Risk assets should continue to perform if real growth continues to recover, even in a higher interest rate environment; however, we could see volatility as markets digest the slow withdrawal of stimulus by the Federal Reserve. Valuations have certainly moved higher, but are not overly rich relative to history. Markets rarely stop when they reach fair value. There are even pockets of attractive valuations, such as emerging markets. Momentum remains strong; the S&P 500 Index spent all of 2013 above its 200-day moving average. However, investor sentiment is elevated, which could provide ammunition for a short-term pull-back. A pull-back could be short-lived should demand for equities remain robust.

Asset Class Outlook

Our portfolios are positioned to take advantage of continued strength in risk assets, and we continue to emphasize high conviction opportunities within asset classes, as well as strategies that can exploit market inefficiencies.

Asset Class ReturnsAsset Class Returns

There’s a Reason It’s Cheap

Jeff RauppJeff Raupp, CFA, Senior Investment Manager

A few years ago when I was down the shore in New Jersey with my family, I decided it was time for my then nine- and six-year-old children to try one of my favorite childhood pastimes—boogie boarding. For those unfamiliar, a boogie board is a (very) poor-man’s version of a surf board; basically a short board that helps you ride waves either on your stomach or, if you’re really good, your knees. So we went to the store to buy a pair of boards and found a pretty wide price range— $10 for the 26-inch, all-foam board to $100+ for the 42-inch poly-something-or-other board with the hard-slick bottom. Being a bit of a value investor, and not knowing how much the kids would like riding waves, I went with something much closer to the bottom end of that range. To make a long story short, three hours later I found myself with a broken board (who knew a foam board couldn’t handle a 200+ lb dad demonstrating?), a broken ego, and a trip back to the store to purchase a new pair of boards—this time closer to the middle of the price range. A good lesson for the kids, but definitely a reinforced lesson for me, is often when something is cheap there’s a very good reason why.

8.22.13_Raupp_Cheap_1I’m reminded of this lesson when I look at global equity valuations, particularly those in Europe. Forward P/E ratios (stock price divided by the next 12 months of projected earnings) in most of the major Eurozone countries fall in the 10- to 12-times range, which is relatively cheap from a historical perspective. Compared to the U.S. at 14½ and other developed countries like Japan and Australia at close to 14, the region seems pretty attractive. Tack onto that that the Eurozone has just emerged from its longest recession ever, and the idea that markets are forward-looking, it would seem like a great opportunity to rotate assets into cheap markets as their economies are improving. And we’re seeing some of that in the third quarter, as the Europe-heavy MSCI EAFE index has outpaced the S&P 500 by about 3% quarter-to-date.

But, similar to low-priced boogie boards, buyers of European equities need to be aware of the risks that come with your “bargain” purchase. This past Tuesday, German finance minister, Wolfgang Schauble, admitted that there would need to be another Greek bailout next year even though they’ve been bailed out twice in the last four years and restructured (defaulted on) 25% of their debt in 2012. All told, about $500 billion has gone to support an economy with a 2013 GDP of about $250 billion, and it hasn’t been enough. And by the way, youth unemployment is approaching 60%, and 2013 has seen multiple protests and strikes over austerity measures.

8.22.13_Raupp_Cheap_2Beyond Greece, Portugal and Ireland are running national debts of over 120% of GDP and could need additional bailout money. Italy is operating with a divided government and a national debt of over 130% of GDP, and the Netherlands and Spain are still on the downward side of the housing bubble. Germany has been Europe’s economic powerhouse and has played an integral role in containing the debt issues on Europe’s southern periphery. But they’ve been grudging financiers, so much so that German chancellor Angela Merkel has gone to great lengths to avoid the topic of additional bailouts ahead of upcoming German elections.

Sometimes that bargain purchase works out. You get the right product on sale or you’re able to buy cheap markets when the negatives have already been baked into the price. But make sure you’re considering all the angles, or you could quickly end up back at the store.

Is Europe on the Mend?

Magnotta@AmyLMagnotta, CFA, Brinker Capital

We have spent so much time focusing on the U.S. fiscal cliff that the concerns regarding Europe seemed to have been pushed to the sideline. On the positive side there has been progress in Europe. Mario Draghi, head of the European Central Bank, can take some credit for the progress. The Financial Times even named him their Person of the Year.

The €1 trillion Long-Term Refinancing Operation (LTRO) put in place in late 2011 helped fund the banking system. In July, Draghi pledged to “do whatever it takes to preserve the euro.” His words were followed up by the ECB’s open-ended sovereign bond buying program called Outright Money Transactions (OMTs) designed to keep yields on Eurozone sovereign bonds in check. The next step could be establishing the ECB as the direct supervisor of the region’s banks.

Source: FactSet

Source: FactSet

These actions have brought down borrowing costs for problem countries such as Italy and Spain, helping to change the trajectory of the crisis and prevent an economic collapse. Yields on 10-Year Italian and Spanish bonds have fallen over 200 basis points to 4.4% and 5.2%, respectively. The Euro has also strengthened versus the U.S. dollar since July, from a low of 1.21 $/€ to 1.32 $/€ today.

Source: FactSet

Source: FactSet

I wonder how long this lull in volatility in the region can continue in the face of a weak growth in the region. Seven Eurozone countries fell into recession in 2012 — Greece, Portugal, Italy, Spain, Cyprus, Slovenia and Finland. The Greek economy experienced its 17th consecutive quarter of contraction, while Portugal completed its second year of recession. There remains a stark difference in the economic performance of Germany and the rest of the Eurozone. Unemployment rates are at very high levels and continue to increase. Youth unemployment is above 50% in both Greece and Spain, a recipe for social unrest.

The ECB’s actions have bought time for the Eurozone economies to get their sovereign debt problems under control. However, continued austerity measures implemented in an attempt to repair the debt crisis have only served to further weaken growth in the region and exacerbate the situation by pushing debt to GDP ratios even higher. While some confidence has been restored to the markets, policymakers should attempt to implement more pro-growth measures to pull the region out of recession.

12.28.12_Magnotta_Europe_ChartCombo

Europe’s equity markets have rebounded nicely in 2012, leading global equity markets on a relative basis since the second quarter; the rally helped by the ECB’s actions. I remain concerned that the ECB’s measures, while improving confidence, do not address the underlying problems of weak to negative economic growth combined with deleveraging. Weak growth in the region should weigh on corporate earnings and keep a ceiling on equity valuations. The deleveraging process takes years to work through. Because the situation remains fragile, we are likely still prone to event risk and periods of increased volatility in the region.

Source: FactSet

Source: FactSet

Potential for ECB Action Incites Strong Rally by Joe Preisser

Emphatic declarations of support for the Continent’s common currency, issued by The President of the European Central Bank, Mario Draghi on Thursday, and echoed by German Chancellor Angela Merkel and French President Francoise Hollande on Friday served to bolster investor sentiment and ignited a strong rally across global equities. The display of solidarity in defense of the euro project from the Union’s leadership seen this week came in response to the reemergence of fears of its possible dissolution as funding costs for the Spanish government soared to dangerous heights.

Trading for the week commenced as speculation that Spain would be the next member of the currency union to require emergency funding, swept through the marketplace, putting downward pressure on share prices around the world.  A decision by Madrid to offer financial support to the country’s struggling regional governments caused concern that the additional obligations would create an unsustainable situation for the heavily indebted nation. The yield on Spanish 10 year bonds rose above the record height of 7.5% on Tuesday, while Spain’s IBEX-35 stock index sank nearly 10% over the course of three trading sessions, reflecting the depth of trepidation with which the credit and equities markets view the difficulties currently facing the government.  According to Bloomberg News, “After taking on as much as 100 billion euros of bailout loans to aid banks, the risk…is that the additional burden of helping regions pushes bond yields to unaffordable levels.”

As the nations of the European Union continue to struggle to address the soaring borrowing costs faced by several of their member states, the trepidation this has created among investors around the globe revealed itself in several of the quarterly earnings releases issued this week.  The current situation on the Continent has deeply affected markets in the eurozone, reverberated across Asia, and is now being reflected in the profitability of corporations in the United States highlighting the global implications of the current crisis.  United Parcel Service, which delivers more packages than any company in the world, and Whirlpool Corp., the globe’s largest manufacturer of appliances both saw their shares fall after reporting earnings which failed to meet expectations (Bloomberg News). In its earnings release statement, Scott Davis, the Chief Executive Officer of UPS said, “Increasing uncertainty in the United States, continuing weakness in Asia exports and the debt crisis in Europe are impacting projections of economic expansion.”  

In an effort to hold down borrowing costs and to thwart contagion, the President of the European Central Bank, Mario Draghi, stated on Thursday that steps would be taken to halt the precipitous rise in the sovereign yields of several of the most heavily indebted members of the currency union.  Mr. Draghi was quoted by Bloomberg News as saying, “within our mandate, the ECB is ready to do whatever it takes to preserve the euro.  And believe me, it will be enough.”  The marketplace found solace in this statement, as the prevalent feeling among investors currently is that a direct sovereign bond buying by the ECB will be forthcoming, thus easing a measure of the acute effects of the crisis. With unlimited capacity on its balance sheet, the Central Bank is widely considered to be the only institution on the Continent capable of successfully intervening in the debt market to drive funding costs lower.  Bloomberg News quoted Bernd Berg, a foreign-exchange strategist at Credit Suisse, “Draghi’s comments that the ECB would do everything to preserve the euro currency gave some relief to markets and lifted asset prices after renewed euro-zone collapse fears.”

A joint statement issued by German Chancellor Angela Merkel and French President Francoise Hollande that their nations are, “bound by the deepest duty”(Bloomberg News), to maintain the currency union in its current iteration served to further ease investor concerns, as it reinforced the commitment of the Continent’s two largest economies to the euro project.  With a multitude of challenges facing the global economy it will be vitally important that the leaders of the European Union follow through in short order on the pledges made this week and work to drive sovereign yields back to sustainable levels, thus restoring a measure of stability to the marketplace.

An Update on Greece

With the recent headlines coming out of Greece this week, Brinker Capital’s Senior Investment Manager and International Strategist, Stuart Quint, shares a few quick points.

  • Greek elections on June 18 raise the risk of Greek default sooner rather than later, leading to some uncertainty. However, risks of Greece have been known for a while by the markets. The question is whether we see bank deposit runs out of other weaker European economies (Spain, Italy) and into stronger ones.
  • European Central Bank liquidity measures and hopeful, but inconsistent, fiscal progress in Ireland, Portugal, and Italy could cushion the downside and show commitment to keeping the Euro around in the near term.
  • Economic growth and European equities, primarily, are likely to take the pain until we get further clarity on the issues listed above. U.S. equities and other risk assets will also be affected in the near term due to concerns on slower global growth, although the U.S. is less affected by global growth than other markets.